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[i] United States Energy Information Agency (EIA), China, 14 May 2015,

[ii] Bilahari Kausikan, US-China Relations: Groping towards a New Modus Vivendi, Institute of Policy Studies, S. R. Nathan Lecture, 25 February 2016

[iii] Davis Shambaugh, China Goes Global: The Partial Power, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, Kindle edition

[iv] Wu Jianmin, One Belt and One Road, Asia’s Stability and Prosperity, RSIS Distinguished Public Lecture, 12 March 2015

[v] U.S. Energy Information Agency, China, 15 May 2015,

[vi] Martin Harrison, Relations between the Gulf Oil Monarchies and the People’s Republic of China, 1971-2005, Lancaster University, Unpublished PhD thesis, 2006

[vii] James M. Dorsey, China and the Middle East: Embarking on a Strategic Approach, RSIS Commentary, 16 September 2014,

[viii] Kathy Gill, Barack Obama Acceptance Speech - DNC - 28 August 2008,, 28 August 2008,

[ix] Cheng Dongxiao et al, Building up a Cooperative & Co-progressive New Asia: China’s Asia Strategy towards 2020, Shanghai: Shanghai Institutes for International Studies, 2012,

[x] Institute. For Energy Research, U.S. Overtakes Saudi Arabia and Russia as Largest Oil Producer, 10 July 2014, International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2012.

[xi] Ibid. Wu Jianmin

[xii] U.S. Department of State, U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue Outcomes of the Strategic Track, 14 July 2014,

[xiii] Sara Hamdan, UAE Becomes a Magnet for Chinese Students, The New York Times, 15 September 2013,

[xiv] Rania Moussly, Chinese Language, Culture Classes on Offer in Dubai, Gulf News, 22 August 2010,

[xv] IRIB World Service, China: Ningxia aims to become capital of Halal food processing, 18 September 2013,

[xvi] Sean Foley, Seek Knowledge Even If It Takes You to China (Via Washington): America, China, and Saudi Arabia in the Twenty-First Century, Presentation at China in the Middle East Conference, Beijing, 18 March 2015

[xvii] Ibid. Jian Junbo

[xviii] Xinhua, Full text of China's Arab Policy Paper, 13 January 2016,

[xix] Ma. Xiaolin, #38 Event Report: Islamic Caliphate in Iraq: What Can China Do? thinkINchina, 22 October 2014,

[xx] US Energy Information Administration China, 4 February 2014,

[xxi] International Energy Agency, IEA releases Oil Market Report for February, 13 February 2014,

[xxii] James M. Dorsey, China & the Middle East: Tilting Towards Iran? RSIS Commentary, 28 January 2016,

[xxiii] Michael Meidan, Amrita Sen and Robert Campbell, China: ‘the new normal,’ The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, February 2015,

[xxiv] Keith Johnson, China Tops U.S. as Biggest Oil Importer, Foreign Policy, 11 May 2015,

[xxv] Kenneth Rapozza, Internationalization of China Currency Continues with Qatar Deal, Forbes, 4 November 2014,

[xxvi] Emma Scott, China’s Silk Road: A Foothold in the Suez Canal, but Looking to Israel, China Brief 14, no. 19, 2014,

[xxvii] Ibid. Scott

[xxviii] Avi Bar-Eli, Chinese company to run new Haifa port, Haaretz, 24 March 2015,

[xxix] Rami Amichai and Ari Rabinovitc, Chinese firm starts work on new Ashdod port, as Haifa workers strike, 28 October 2014, Haaretz,

[xxx] David Barnett (7 September 2013). Al Furqan Brigades claim 2 attacks on ships in Suez Canal, threaten more, The Long War journal,

[xxxi] Dubi Ben-Gedalyahu (29 April 2015). China to be Israel’s biggest infrastructure partner, Globes,

[xxxii] Najmeh Bozorgmehr, China overtakes EU to become Tehran's largest trading ally, The Irish Times, 9 February 2010,

[xxxiii] Saeed Shah, China to Build Pipeline from Iran to Pakistan, The Wall Street Journal, 9 April 2015,

[xxxiv] Saeed Shah and Jeremy Page, China Readies $46 Billion for Pakistan Trade Route, The Wall Street Journal, 16 April 2015,

[xxxv] Ibid. Sun Degang Sun

[xxxvi] Ibid. Wu Jianmin

[xxxvii] Ibid. Wu Jianmin

[xxxviii] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Xi Jinping Attends Opening Ceremony of Sixth Ministerial Conference of China-Arab States Cooperation Forum and Delivers Important Speech Stressing to Promote Silk Road Spirit and Deepen China-Arab Cooperation, 5 June 2014,

[xxxix] Tim Niblock, The Gulf, the West and Asia: Shifts in the Gulf’s Global Relations, Lecture at 4th International Forum on Asia and the Middle East: International Conference on Great Powers and the Middle East Political & Social Transformation, Shanghai, 10 September 2014

[xl] Christina Y. Lin, China’s Strategic Shift Toward the Region of the Four Seas: The Middle Kingdom Arrives in the Middle East, IDC Herzliya Rubin Center for Research in International Affairs, 2013,

[xli] ASDA’A Burson-Marsteller, 7th Annual ASDA’A Burson-Marsteller Arab Youth Survey, 2015

[xlii] Ibid. ASDA’A Burson-Marsteller

[xliii] Ibid. ASDA’A Burson-Marsteller

[xliv] Yun Sun, March West: China’s Response to the U.S. Rebalancing, Brookings, 31 January 2013.

[xlv] Mojtaba Mahdavi, Is China Becoming a New Hegemony in the Middle East? International Conference on China in the Middle East, Indiana University and Peking University, Beijing, 17-18 March 2015

[xlvi] Christina Lin, The New Silk Road, China’s Energy Strategy in the Greater Middle East, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Policy Focus #109, April 2011,

[xlvii] Irene Chan, China’s Maritime Silk Road: Emerging Domestic Debates, RSIS Commentaries, No. 053/2015, 13 March 2015,

[xlviii] Linda Jakobsen and Dean Knox (2010). New Foreign Policy Actors in China, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute,

[xlix] Chaoling Feng, Embracing Interdependence: The Dynamics of China and the Middle East, Brookings Doha Center, 2015,

[l] Ash-Sharq Al-Awsat, Saudi–Chinese trade increases by 14 percent, 20 November 2013,

[li] Stig Stenslie and Wang Luyao, China the ‘Next U.S.” in the Middle East? Middle East Institute, National University of Singapore, 2014,

[lii] Naser M. Al-Tamimi, China-Saudi Arabia Relations, 1990-2012: Marriage of Convenience or Strategic Alliance? London: Routledge, 2014, p. 126-143.

[liii] Dania Thafer, After the Financial Crisis: China-Dubai Economic Relations, Middle East-Asia Project (MAP), 15 September 2013,

[liv] Chengqiu Wu, Sovereignty, Human Rights, and Responsibility: Changes in China’s Response to International Humanitarian Crises, Journal of Chinese Political Science/Association of Chinese Political Studies Vol. 15:1, pp. 71-97

[lv] Ministry of National Defense Chinese Ambassador to India: New security concepts should be nurtured, 24 April 2009,

[lvi] Enrico Fardella, China’s Debate on the Middle East and North Africa: A Critical Review, Mediterranean Quarterly, Vol. 26:1, p. 5-25

[lvii] Deng Xiaoping’s "24-Character Strategy,

[lviii] Shaio H. Zerba, China’s Libya Evacuation Operation: A New Diplomatic Imperative: Overseas Citizen Protection, Journal of Contemporary China, Vol. 23:90, 2014, p. 1093-1112.

[lix] Xinhua. 2012. Full text of Hu Jintao's report at 18th Party Congress, November 17,

[lx] Ibid. Wu Jianmen

[lxi] Ibid. Pan Guang

[lxii] Ibid. Duchatel, Braunel, and Hang

[lxiii] Ibid. Pan Guang

[lxiv] Yitzhak Shichor, The Middle East in China’s Foreign Policy, 1949-1977, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977 p. 160-161

[lxv] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, China's Initiation of the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-Existence,

[lxvi] Yiyi Chen, Will China Interfere in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict? Middle East Institute, 6 May 2015,

[lxvii] Ibid. Chen

[lxviii] James. M. Dorsey, China Needs to Change Mideast Foreign Policy, Bloomberg Business, 7 February 2012,

[lxix] Ibid. Pan Guang

[lxx] Ibid. Fardelli

[lxxi] Jian Junbo, Beijing’s New Overseas Imperative, Asia Times Online, 17 February 2012,

[lxxii] Aron Shai, Detachment No Longer Serves Chinese Interests in Middle East,” Global Times, 2 August 2012,

[lxxiii] Ibid. Jian Junbo

[lxxiv] Gareth Evans, Responding to atrocities: the new geopolitics of intervention, SIPRI Yearbook, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 30

[lxxv] Chinese State Council, The Diversified Employment of China’s Armed Forces, Defence White Paper, Beijing, April 2013,

[lxxvi] Mathieu Duchatel, Oliver Braunel, and Zhou Hang, Protecting China’s Overseas Interest: The Slow Shift Away from Non-interference, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, June 2014,

[lxxvii] Mikhail Barabanov, Vasiliy Kashin and Konstantin Makienko, Shooting Star, China’s Military Machine in the 21st Century, Minneapolis: East View Press, 2012, section 3.1

[lxxviii] Liu Zhongmin, Political Unrest in the Middle East and China’s Response in Sun Sun Degang and Yahia H. Zoubir (eds), Building a New Silk Road: China and the Middle East in the 21st Century, Shanghai: World Affairs Press, 2014, p. 106-125

[lxxix] Zhou Weilie, On the Strategic Relationship between China and the Middle East Islamic Countries in in Sun Sun Degang and Yahia H. Zoubir (eds), Building a New Silk Road: China and the Middle East in the 21st Century, Shanghai: World Affairs Press, 2014, p. 147-177

[lxxx] Pang Zhongying, Through Chinese eyes: Pang Zhongying (part 1), The Interpreter, 22 December 2012,

[lxxxi] Beijing Review, New Direction for China's Diplomacy, 8 March 2012,

[lxxxii] Ibid. Lin, China’s Strategic Shift

[lxxxiii] Pakistan Defence, China’s Military Railway Transport, 24 June 2010,

[lxxxiv] John McLaughlin, The Great Powers in the New Middle East in John B. Alterman (ed), Rocky Harbours: Taking Stock of the Middle East in 2015, Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2015

[lxxxv] Joseph A. Kéchichian, Saudi Arabia and China: The Security Dimension, Middle East Institute, 9 February 2016,

[lxxxvi] John Calabrese, Saudi Arabia and China Extend Ties Beyond Oil, China Brief, Vol.5:20, 27 September 2005

[lxxxvii] Zachary Keck, China Secretly Sold Saudi Arabia DF-21 Missiles with CIA Approval, Newsweek, 31 January 2014,

[lxxxviii] Zachary Keck, Saudi Arabia May Buy Pakistani-Chinese Fighter Jets, The Diplomat, 24 January 2014,

[lxxxix] Khaled bin Sultan with Patrick Seale, Desert Warrior: A Personal View of the Gulf War by the Joint Forces Commander, New York: HarperCollins, 1995, p. 139

[xc] Xinhua, China Sends 18th Escort to Somali Waters, People’s Daily, 1 August 2014.

[xci] Sun Degang Sun, China’s Soft Military Presence in the Middle East, Middle East Institute, 11 March 2015,

[xcii] Ibid. Lin, The New Silk Road

[xciii] Frank Sieren, Sieren's China: Military exercises in the Mediterranean, Deutsche Welle, 4 May 2015,

[xciv] J. Michael Cole, China's Navy in the Mediterranean? The Diplomat, 30 July 2012,

[xcv] Mohammad El-Sayed Selim, China’s Emerging Role in the Arab World in in Sun Sun Degang and Yahia H. Zoubir (eds), Building a New Silk Road: China and the Middle East in the 21st Century, Shanghai: World Affairs Press, 2014, p. 126-143

[xcvi] Ibid. Duchatel, Braeuner and Hang

[xcvii] The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China, China's Military Strategy, May 2015,

[xcviii] John Calabrese, Fate of the Dragon in the Year of the Red Fire Monkey: China and the Middle East 2016, Middle East Institute, 3 February 2016,

[xcix] Ibid. Nan Li

[c] Jonathan Holslag, Naval visits accustom Mediterranean to new role, Global Times, 1 August 2012,

[ci] Ibid. Fardelli

[cii] Ibid. Sun Degang Sun

[ciii] United Nations Peacekeeping (2015). Troop and police contributors,

[civ] Ibid. Duchatel, Braunel, and Hang

[cv] Zhou Bo, The String of Pearls and the Maritime Silk Road, China–US Focus, 11 February 2014, 2014

[cvi] Al Jazeera, China 'negotiates military base' in Djibouti, 9 May 2015

[cvii] Private communication from an informed source, 26 May 2015

[cviii] Michael. Singh, Risks for China, and U.S., in Beijing’s Growing Involvement in Middle East, The Wall Street Journal, 21 May 2015,

[cix] Xinhua, Full Text: China's Military Strategy, 26 May 2015,

[cx] China Defense Mashup, Chinese paper advises PLA Navy to build overseas military bases, 8 January 2013,

[cxi] Nan Li, The Evolution of China's Naval Strategy and Capabilities: From “Near Coast” and “Near Seas” to “Far Seas,” Asian Security, Vol. 5:2, p. 144-169

[cxii] Ibid. Nan Li

[cxiii] Andrew Erickson and Gabe Collins, Near Seas “Anti-Navy” Capabilities, not Nascent Blue Water Fleet Constitute China’s Core Challenge to U.S. and Regional Militaries, China Sign Post, No. 55, 6 March 2012,

[cxiv] Burak Ege Bekdil and Umit Enginsoy, Turkey, China in Exercises, Defense News, 17 October 2010,

[cxv] BGNNews, China declares it won missile defense tender in Turkey, 15 March 2015,

[cxvi] Altay Atli, A View from Ankara’s Turkey’s Relations with China in a Changing Middle East, Mediterranean Studies, Vol. 26:1, p. 117-136

[cxvii] Ibid. Atli

[cxviii] Ibid. Atli

[cxx] Foundation for Defence of Democracies. Iranian Tools of Oppression and the Companies that Provide Them, July 2011.

[cxxi] Tehran Times, Clerics stand up for rights of Uyghur Muslims, 14 July 2009.

[cxxii] Scott Harold and Alireza Nader, China and Iran, Economic, Political, and Military Relations, RAND Corporation, 2012,

[cxxiii] Reuters, China aims to boost military relations with Iran, 5 May 2014,

[cxxiv] Mark Thompson and James M. Dorsey, Pentagon Pool report, US Department of Defence, 23 July 1987

[cxxv] Jane’s Strategic Weapons Systems, Surrey: Jane’s Information Service, Volume 100-101, 1990

[cxxvi] John W. Garver, China and Iran: Ancient Partners in a Post-Imperial World, Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2006, p. 182-9

[cxxviii] Michael Mazza, China-Iran Ties: Assessment and Implications for U.S. Policy, American Enterprise Institute, 21 April 2011,

[cxxix] Zachary Keck, China Calls Iran a ‘Strategic Partner, The Diplomat, 6 May 2014, Go to Part 4

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